Direct and Indirect Stakeholder Analysis

Difficulty Level:

Method Overview

Stakeholder Analysis is a commonly employed method to identify stakeholders that might be affected by the technology (Mitchell et al, 1997). The Direct and Indirect Stakeholder Analysis in Value Sensitive Design broadens the definition of stakeholders to “include not only individuals and groups but also institutions and societies” (Friedman & Hendry, 2019).

Direct and Indirect Stakeholder Analysis is a value-sensitive analysis process, designed for industry teams or individuals, to identify and legitimate stakeholders, listing various ways in which stakeholders can be affected and “documenting potential benefits, harms and tensions” (Friedman & Hendry, 2019). 

Framework of ethics used:



Method Intentions:

Getting Started

You will need: a technology/product/design/problem context at hand 

Steps to start the value-sensitive stakeholder analysis (Friedman & Hendry, 2019) 

  • Consider a technology, product or problem context  your or your team is working with
  • Identify individuals, groups, organizations, institutions, and societies  that might reasonably be affected by the technology 
  • Employ two categories for your analysis (1) those who interact directly with the technology (direct stakeholders); and (2) those indirectly affected by the technology (indirect stakeholders). 

Document in ways which the stakeholders are affected, such as “potential benefits, harms and tensions”(Friedman & Hendry, 2019)

Further Reading

  • Mitchell, R.K.; Agle, B.R.; Wood, D.J. (1997). “Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts”. The Academy of Management Review. 22 (4): 853–86. doi:10.2307/259247. JSTOR 259247.
  • Friedman, Kahn, Hagman, Severson, & Gill (2006); Nathan, Friedman, Klasjna, Kane, & Miller (2008); Czeskis, Dermendjieva, Yapit, Borning, Friedman, Gill, & Kohno (2010); and Watkins (2011)
  • Value Sensitive Design Methods- Stakeholder Analysis


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