Value Sensitive Action Reflection Model

Difficulty Level:

Method Overview

The Value Sensitive Action-Reflection Model is designed to assist stakeholders who do not have experience in design principles and are participating in a co-design session the opportunity to learn about both approaches for designing a tool and also ways of investigating its potential usage context and how they might adversely impact the users.

Framework of ethics used:



Method Intentions:

Getting Started

You will need:

Materials: Determined by the design objectives of the co-design session

Participants: Participants number can be four or more. (Like typical co-design session)


  1. Introduce the participants to the goals of the study and the co-design materials.
  2. Create a list of design questions you want the participants to answer or sketch
  3. During the session
    1. First, instruct the participants to create a prototype or sketch based on the prompt of the study.
    2. Second, once the participants complete the creation of the sketches/prototypes, prompt them to iterate the design twice, first from the perspective of a stakeholder and second from the perspective of a user. The goal is to encourage a complete cycle of reflection on how the product can impact both the users and the stakeholders.
    3. Third, encourage the participants to demonstrate and reflect on the prototypes they created.

Further Reading

Value Sensitive Action-Reflection Model


Yoo, D., Huldtgren, A., Woelfer, J. P., Hendry, D. G., & Friedman, B. (2013, April). A value sensitive action-reflection model: evolving a co-design space with stakeholder and designer prompts. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 419-428).

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